International science and technology exchange and cooperation is an important part of China's open-door policy. It not only represents an important measure for developing the Chinese economy and science and technology but also constitutes a major component of the overall bilateral relations China has with other countries.
Since the advent of reforms and opening to the outside world, China has conducted both governmental and non-governmental science and technology exchange and cooperation both through bilateral and multilateral channels worldwide, under the guidance of national diplomatic policy, according to the requirements of China's scientific and technological and economic development and in line with the principle of "equality and mutual benefit, sharing results, protecting intellectual property rights, and respecting international norms". Thus far, China has established cooperative scientific and technological relations with 150 or more countries and regions and entered into governmental science and technology cooperation agreements or economic and technical cooperation accords with 96 countries. In addition, China has acquired positions in over 30 scientific and technical institutions within the United Nations system and participated in 827 international S&T and academic bodies. By 1995, 27,785 international S&T exchange and cooperative projects had been carried out with over 93,981 personnel exchanged.
The Government of China has adopted a series of measures to encourage S&T personnel and research institutes to involve themselves in international cooperation in all aspects through various channels at different levels in a multitude of forms such as attending international academic conferences, holding international S&T exhibitions and symposiums, inviting foreign experts on lecture tours and for technical consultancy and feasibility studies, conducting cooperative research, joint investigation and exploratory activities, holding academic seminars, establishing joint laboratories, technical training centers, joint venture high-tech enterprises, sending scholars to conduct joint research in institutes abroad, and S&T personnel being hired overseas. The Chinese Government strives to gear international S&T cooperation towards integration with cooperative activities in other areas, particularly in the economic sector.
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